EVALUATING SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS AND INTERACTIONS BETWEEN VARIOUS ECOSYSTEM COMPONENTS
The exploitation of renewable resources poses the problem of common sustainable level and that the regulation of access to stocks and harvested areas in a constrained by competition from other human uses. This issue also includes the conditions of transition from the current management system and future development of measures to preserve resources, ecosystems, and ways to optimize production and fishery products.
This axis can be decomposed into three sub-themes:
- Identification and analysis of key processes operating torque management of fishery resources of the Channel;
- Development of indicators characterizing the status of fleets and fisheries;
- Modeling and evaluation of fisheries management strategies.
A. Identification and analysis of key processes of management-exploitation links of fishery resources in the Channel
This research sub-area will focus on two key processes following:
- Interactions between fleet dynamics (even fishing enterprises), the availability of resources they use, their economic environment (changes in demand, relationships with the downstream sector, prices of production factors) and context institution to which they are submitted. Work will focus on studying the behavior of private agents: strategies for investment and production (ie, tactical and strategic choices made by fishers in terms of fishing time, selection of crafts, landing catch or release) fleets (or companies), determining the evolution of fishing capacity and its use. The analysis should distinguish between short-term behavior (on the scale of the tide or the fishing operation), medium term (throughout the year) and long term (multi-annual scale) . It will be developed in the Channel for different case studies currently posing problems in regulating the activity for stock conservation. A backgrounder on fleet dynamics is presented in Annex 1.
- Interactions between dynamics of production of fishing units and their pressure on marine ecosystems. This is to better understand how the capacity of fishing units (boats, fleets) results in terms of impact on marine ecosystems (fishing pressure on exploited resources, adverse effects on marine species and unexploited the marine environment). A better understanding of this process would help identify the appropriate levers to develop better ways of fishing potential for exploitation of marine ecosystems and preserve biodiversity. Particular attention will be paid to the analysis of catchability of fishing units (ie interaction between the machine and overhead), as well as indirect effects of exploitation (catch of cetaceans, impact of gear on the bottom , ...).
B. Development of indicators characterizing the state of fleets and fisheries
This is to identify and test a set of indicators describing the state of mixed fleets and fisheries associated with them. The work undertaken in the sub-axis 4.2 consist of empirical studies aimed at defining the metrics and benchmarks are most appropriate, and sensitivity analysis of these metrics.
- Identification of metrics. Three groups of indicators can be considered, as they describe the status, (i) inventory and ecosystem impacted by the fleets, (ii) they own fleet or, finally, (iii) business practice ( ie the intersection between fleets and stocks). The sub-axis 4.2 is mainly focus on indicators (ii) and (iii) (ie fleets and trades). The indicators characterizing the fleets are currently undergoing in the context of European projects. Indicators include fishing effort, fishing power, the type of fishing behavior (eg static vs.. Exploratory) and economic activity (eg revenue, net profit) fleet. The indicators characterizing the occupations describe the catch by species, but also the degree of mixing (or specific variety) of catches. Indicators (i) are also critical to research undertaken in line 4, but these may be developed in the framework of axes 1 and 2. We will look at the values of the indicators for each unit of time, but also their inter-annual variations, which are themselves an indicator in its own right.
- Identification of benchmarks. Each indicator should be associated with a set of benchmarks. The determination of benchmarks based on both a conceptual approach (requiring such a literature review of the literature on generic indicators) and taking into account historical values.
- Sensitivity Analyses of indicators. The bio-economic model developed by ISIS-Fish EMH is an operational platform that will test the sensitivity of the indicators described above. This work should also be realized in the framework of the European Afram, for which the Channel is one of the case studies considered.
C. Fisheries management scenario: Modeling and evaluation
The bio-economic modeling can quantify the foremost issues of ecosystem and economic problems of overexploitation. It also provides a better understanding of the nature of these problems, taking into account the choice of investment, production and consumption that are at the origin. It should finally help to assess the ability of different management scenarios to address these problems. The process described in the sub-axis 4.1 and indicators developed and tested in the sub-axis 4.2 will be integrated in the sub-axis 4.3 in the context of:
- Developing bio-economic models and simulation tools to predict the impact of regulations (collective regulation of access to marine ecosystems) on fleets and fisheries resources they exploit. These models rely in particular on the platform simulation ISIS-Fish. ISIS-Fish has already been set in the case of demersal and pelagic Gulf of Biscay. Under the Challenge, ISIS-Fish will also be set on the basis of fisheries data and socio-economic data for fisheries in the Channel. This can be done in the framework of European projects in which CAFE Afram IFREMER is currently engaged.
- To evaluate different management scenarios to solve problems, especially in exploring alternative tools such as regulating access to marine space in terms of the impact of fishing activities, and / or implementation of economic instruments, management, and this in addition to conventional regulatory approaches. The scenarios studied fisheries management should take into account the anthropogenic forcings generated by other uses occurring on the channel (eg aggregate extraction, wind turbines, pollution). The analysis of different scenarios will be based on indicators and benchmarks identified in the work under the sub-priority 4.2. Finally, the evaluation of management strategies must also consider the benefits and costs of the transition phases between regulatory systems.
- Exploring the impact of different sources of variability and uncertainty inherent in the dynamics of the fishing industry on the properties of simulated management strategies.
Contact: Paul MARCHAL, Ifremer Boulogne-sur-Mer