From this page you can download the following Ifremer reference documents:
Started in 2009, this synthesis on deep-sea mineral resources is a work of forward thinking towards 2030, focusing on the needs of France and Europe. The study was led by Ifremer and brought together more than twenty French partners, representing the major industry stakeholders.
Following the discovery of a diversity of minerals forms in deep-sea areas, with high concentrations of some metals, exploration of ocean now includes prospecting for deep-ocean mineral resources. Polymetallic nodules were identified in the 1970s (iron, manganese, nickel...), then manganese crusts (cobalt, platinum...), hydrothermal sulphides (copper, zinc, gold, silver...) and, recently, natural hydrogen. These deposits also contain rare metals that are valuable for a number of high-technology industries.
Because supplies from land-based reserves of several metals are uncertain in the medium term, an effort is being made to diversify sources and to study the potential of marine resources. Four issues are integrated into this research: knowledge of the deposits, technologies for exploration and exploitation, biodiversity and impacts on the deep-sea environment and strategic partnerships for France and Europe.
France has access to deep-sea areas in three oceans, world-class human and technological resources and over forty year’s expertise and experience of working at sea and in the laboratory. Deep-sea mineral resources offer the opportunity for our country and a fortiori for Europe, to combine scientific research, technological progress, economic development, security of supply for certain metals, and participation in the collective development of sustainable management of this new area.
Download the complete synthesis:
Editorial coordination by Régis Kalaydjian.
This book provides a comprehensive national summary of activities related to the sea and assesses their economic importance. The activities are defined according to three categories: (1) industrial users of the marine environment, (2) industries providing services and equipment to the previous category and (3) public services providing assistance, protection and knowledge. This book is unique among works in French; it concludes with a summary of the evolution of the maritime economy over time and its sensitivity to the international situation.
The French version of this book is available for sale on the Editions Quae website. The English ebook version is available by download via the link below.
Summary of work done from March 2007 to February 2008 by a group of experts from twelve organisations (industry, ministries, institutes, agencies and research organizations).
This work, coordinated by Ifremer, was made with support from the prospective study organisation "Futuribles".